About Journal

The Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR) is a Biannual peer-reviewed scientific journal and accepts different types of academic articles (e.g. full-length article, short communication and review papers). The journal is part of the Department of Petroleum Technology /University of Technology / Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad-Iraq. The IJOGR was established in 2021 and covers the fields of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects. The journal aims to provide a free platform for researchers all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Technology

Email:  ijogr@uotechnology.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Fadhil Sarhan Kadhim

Print ISSN: 2710-2939

Online ISSN: 2790-2137

Experimental study and evaluation of heavy crude oil desulfurization process using combination of Alkalines Solutions and Catalytic Oxidative

Mohammed Youns; Talib Mohammed Al-Bayati; Alaa Mashjal Ali

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1010

Research on the desulfurization of heavy crude oil will be carried out utilizing Alkalines, Oxidative desulfurization, and a combination of Alkalines and Oxidative desulfurization, among other approaches. In this study, the effects of alkaline solutions with different weights (10–30 gm), temperatures (30–60°C), contact times (30–60 min), and mixing speeds (300–500 rpm) were studied. It was revealed that the removal efficiency of the individual alkaline process was very low. A number of tests are carried out with the goal of offering a suitable technique for the removal of sulfur from heavy crude oil while taking a variety of procedures into consideration. According to the findings of the study, the combination of oxidative and alkaline desulfurization generates the best desulfurization effect, which is around 64.45 %. This is followed by oxidative desulfurization, which produces a 56.54 % desulfurization effect. A study found that alkalines removed the least amount of sulfur (39.52 %) when no oxidative desulfurization was used It is also being researched the influence of different H2O2 concentrations, treatment times, and temperatures on crude oil desulfurization when using a combination of alkaline and oxidative procedures. The results show that when the temperature and H2O2 volume ratio increase, the ultimate sulfur removal rate increases, but virtually maintains constant as treatment time increases. These significant findings will pave the way for widespread usage of combination aulkaline and oxidative desulfurization procedures.

Enhancement the Properties of Local Crude Oil using DE-asphalting Process

Firas AL-Zuhairi; Rana Abbas Azeez; Nabil Majd Alawi; Hoang M. Nguyen

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 13-19
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1011

Asphaltene precipitation is one of the main hitches in the oil sector through the production and refining stages that causes real damages every year. The object of the present work is to study the effect of the deasphalting process of crude oils using different concentrations (5, 10, and 15 wt.%) of n-heptane as a solvent, the experiments were done at a laboratory scale. The deasphalting process quality was based on the sulfur content, conradson carbon residue, density, API, and kinematic viscosity. The results have been shown that the deasphalting process quality was enhanced with increasing weight fraction of added n-heptane, the API value and kinematic viscosity were increased by about 37 and 19.5% respectively, while the density, conradson carbon residue, and sulfur content were decreased by about 5, 17 and 26.8% respectively when 15 wt.% of n-heptane was used, i.e. , the quality of deasphalting methods was enhanced with increased solvent concentrations.

Looking into the Reservoir: Performance Evaluation of Fractured Long Horizontal Wells Using of Borehole Imaging Logs

Jihad Al-Joumaa; Ali H Al-Jumah; Houda Rumhi

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 20-30
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1012

Field G is a highly fractured and faulty field, this paper is seeking about the necessity to keep running Image logs in new oil wells and how the interpretation of the results would led the team to completing wells optimally and to design our well completion properly to prevent high initial water cut. Learnings are summarized from 40+ image logs ran in this field over the last few years. A cross field G seismic interpretation confirmed on lapping reservoirs and 3 major fault trends with different transmissibility. Also, sseismic and sub seismic Faults and fractures are confirmed from BHI with a NE-SW strike of field G and can be possibly related to production behavior of some wells.

In 2015, field G Water Encroachment Study was conducted to identify the cause of high initial water cut of producers. It proposed that detecting fractures early via under-balanced drilling, Borehole Imaging Tools (BHI) and sealing the conduits with production packers would help reduce initial water-cuts [2].
BHI tools are open hole tools that measure either electrical conductivity of the borehole wall or the sonic travel time and amplitude. Micro-conductivity or amplitude and travel time measurements generate an image that shows bedding, fractures and many other fine-scale features. Acoustic tools are preferred in Oil Based Mud (OBM) system and hence they have not been used in field G to the extent that it required a dedicated discussion.

Investigations of Miscible Water Alternating Gas Injection Efficiency in Layered Sandstone Porous Media

Duraid Al-bayati; Emad Al-Khdheeawi; Ali Saeedi; Matthew Myers; quan xie

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 31-44
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1013

Carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding deliberated as one of the most common and feasible used gas to improve oil recovery. CO2 utilisation has grown significantly due to availability, greenhouse effect and easy achievement of miscibility relative to other gases. There have been limited experimental efforts conducted at core-scale focused on evaluating the influence of permeability heterogeneity on oil recovery. Thus the results from this manuscript are essential to highlight the importance of geological uncertainties in the current and future enhanced oil recovery projects.
This manuscript presents a coupled experimental and simulation study to assess the effect of cross bedded reservoir heterogeneity on WAG flooding performance. We performed core flooding experiments with a fluid system consisting of n C10, synthetic brine, and CO2 at a temperature of 343 K and 17.2 MPa pore pressure. In addition to the experimental work, a 2D core scale CMG-GEM simulation associated with PVT module CMG WinProp has been built based on our experimental results. We found that oil recovery decreases dramatically with increasing permeability ratio of cross bedded core samples. Besides, our results revealed channelling of injected CO2 in high permeability beds leaving a considerable amount of oil untouched in low permeability bed. Furthermore, we pronounced a water shielding effect which reduces further contact of the injected CO2 with oil. We thus conclude that reservoir heterogeneity significantly impact WAG flooding performance and evaluation of these influences on oil recovery before any field application are essential.

Comparing between permeability prediction by using classical and FZI methods/Tertiary Reservoir in Khabaz Oil Field / Northern Iraq

Yousif Najeeb Abdulmajeed; Ahmad A. Ramadhan; Ahmed Jubair Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 45-54
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1015

Abstract
This study are developed to predict the permeability of Tertiary reservoir in Khabaz oil field northern of Iraq. The Tertiary reservoir include many geological formations (Aaliji, Jaddala, Oligocene system, Jeribe, Fatha, Muqdadia formations). Actually Seven wells (Kz-1, Kz-2, Kz-3, Kz-4, Kz-9, Kz-14, Kz-15) used for this study in Khabaz oil field. Two methods are used, which are classical methods depending on core test and well log interpretations and FZI methods, the results show that the permeability estimated by core and well log interpretation method which depending on just the porosity are not close enough for the real values because it’s not toke in the consideration all the parameters that effect the values of permeability.
The FZI method are show more real values and provides best correlation coefficient in comparing with the classical methods. The must conclusions of the result refer that the FZI method results are more accurate because of the high correlation coefficient (R2) values.

A trends in Ozone Treatment of Wastewater: a Review

Najem Abdulkadhim Al-Rubaiey

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 55-64
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1016

In recent years, great efforts have been done by the scientific community to develop many green chemical processes to treat water and wastewater effluent. Taking into consideration these new approaches, a new environmentally friendly techniques are giving special attention such as ozonization. Molecular ozone, or tri-oxygen, can be considered as an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula of O3. Ozone is a pale blue gas having pungent smell and far less stable molecule than the molecular O2, decaying in the lower atmosphere to free O2 gas. Ozone is an efficient gas for killing bacteria and eliminating endotoxins and biofilm, with effectiveness being dependent on concentration and operating time. In addition, because the ozone is a strong oxidant, suitably compatible materials ought to be adopted. Moreover, the manufacture of ozone should always be supervised and its level checked occasionally in the surrounding environment to keep a pollution air standard of less than 0.1 ppm. In this paper, essentials and practical features dealing with ozonization system and its utilization are presented and discussed.

Evaluation of Cementation Job Using Cement Bond Log

Fadhil Kadhim; Mojtaba Mohammed Sameer; Emad Al-Khdheeawi; Abbas Radhi Abbas

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 65-82
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1017

Well cementing is an important process during oil and gas well drilling due role in supporting the well casing and preventing formation collapsing. Generally, there are two types of cementing process that are primary cementing and remedial cementing. The type of cement uses in oil and gas well is Portland cement mixed with improvements additives to enhance its characteristics. Various types of cements are used depends on different factors of the cemented region. This cementing process is evaluated using various methods such as ( CBL , Image, VDL, RBT , UST , RIB , URS logs ). Each one of them have its features, specifications and applications. In this paper, we evaluated the cement process for an Iraqi oil well by using CBL, Image and VDL logsy divided to two by selecting two different sections of the well; section A (depth 1780 m to 1800 m) , and section B (depth 1800 m to 1825 m). Our results show that in section A the cementing process is failed because there is no cement behind the casing (a free pipe case is available with fast formation), while section B show a good cementing process.

Various Techniques for Enhanced Oil Recovery: A review

Muayad M. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 83-97
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1018

Crude oil can be extracted from the reservoirs by three mechanisms with different amounts of oil depending on the natural conditions of the reservoir. When the reservoir has an enough pressure, the amount of the produced oil is about 20% to 30% through primary recovery mechanism, and this amount can extent up to about 40% using secondary recovery. Because of the massive amount of the oil left behind the two mechanisms, enhanced oil recovery technique (EOR), the third mechanism, is designed to reduce the residual oil, in which, up to 70% of original oil in place can be recovered (Ahmed, 2018). Almost 3.0 trillion cubic meter light oil and 8.0 trillion cubic meter of unconventional oil will be left underground after primary and secondary stages (Thomas, 2008). Therefore, EOR techniques are applied to improve the oil production and extract much of the oil left in the reservoirs. Economics and technology have to be taken into account to choose the appropriate method in the recovery processes. Mainly, this study discusses various EOR techniques used in the enhancement of the oil recovery, including miscible, immiscible, polymer, surfactants, surfactants-polymer flooding as well as thermal methods.

Mechanisms of Miscible and Immiscible scCO‌2 Displacement Efficiency: Analytical Evaluation of Experimental conditions

Doaa Saleh Mahdi; Duraid Al-bayati; Ali Saeedi Saeedi; Mathew Myers; Cameron White

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 98-107
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1019

CO2 injection has proven to be one of the most successful EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) methods, as compared with other injection gases CO2 miscibility with oil is easier to achieve. During gas injection into reservoirs, oil might be bypassed on either a micro- or macroscopic scale because of different types of heterogeneities. In this work, the performance of first-contact-miscible (FCM) and immiscible (IM) CO2 injections were investigated experimentally using outcrop sandstone core samples. Decane was also used as the hydrocarbon phase as it has a relatively low minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) with CO2 (12.4 MPa). Core flooding experiments were conducted at two pressures of 17.2 MPa and 9.6 MPa and the common temperature of 343 K. Furthermore, analytical calculations of dimensionless numbers are used to study the dominant forces and mechanisms which are correlated with the results of the core flooding experiments. The impacts of gravity, swelling and vaporization on the end results were inferred from the oil recoveries, variations in the pore pressure and dimensional analysis. For CO2 injection in homogeneous core samples, a maximum recovery of 93.5% and 76% was achieved for the FCM and IM displacements, respectively. The higher recovery results of FCM is attributed to the vanishing capillary pressure between displacing and displaced phases. Dimensional analysis showed that the flow is at the capillary-gravity equilibrium at immiscible conditions, while there is dominance of gravity-viscous forces at miscible conditions.

Modeling, Kinetic and Experimental optimization of Reforming Unit for ‎Al- Doura Heavy Naphtha over bi and Tri-metallic Catalysts

Ramzy Syhood Hamied; Khalid A. Sukkar; Shahrazad R. Raouf

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 108-121
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1020

In the present work mathematical representation (simulation studies) and experimental work in order to describe the Iraqi heavy naphtha ‎(feed stock) for catalytic reforming process ‎reaction kinetics. Tri and bi-metal catalysts were prepared by adding of tin and iridium (Ir) ‎to classical catalyst using in catalytic reforming unit in Al –Doura refinery to enhance ‎th reaction selectivity. Catalysts performance (activity and selectivity) for the three main catalytic reforming reactions were investigated such as dehydrogenation, hydrocracking, and dehydrocyclization reaction. Catalysts performances were investigated under the following operating condition: constant reaction pressure equal to 6 atm‎, the reaction temperature range of (480, 490, 500, and 510 ˚C), constant hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio of 4:1, and WHSV (weight hour space velocity) range of (1, 1.5, and 2 hr-1)
The results show that as reaction temperatures increase‎ higher conversion of Paraffins and Naphthenes components ‎in Iraqi heavy naphtha while negative impact on conversion as‎ weight hourly space velocity increase (i.e., higher WHSV shows lower conversion). Generally tri and bi-metal catalysts the aromatics and light components ‎yields will be increased under the same operating conditions reforming process.

Experimental study and evaluation of heavy crude oil desulfurization process using combination of Alkalines Solutions and Catalytic Oxidative

Mohammed Youns; Talib Mohammed Al-Bayati; Alaa Mashjal Ali

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1010

Research on the desulfurization of heavy crude oil will be carried out utilizing Alkalines, Oxidative desulfurization, and a combination of Alkalines and Oxidative desulfurization, among other approaches. In this study, the effects of alkaline solutions with different weights (10–30 gm), temperatures (30–60°C), contact times (30–60 min), and mixing speeds (300–500 rpm) were studied. It was revealed that the removal efficiency of the individual alkaline process was very low. A number of tests are carried out with the goal of offering a suitable technique for the removal of sulfur from heavy crude oil while taking a variety of procedures into consideration. According to the findings of the study, the combination of oxidative and alkaline desulfurization generates the best desulfurization effect, which is around 64.45 %. This is followed by oxidative desulfurization, which produces a 56.54 % desulfurization effect. A study found that alkalines removed the least amount of sulfur (39.52 %) when no oxidative desulfurization was used It is also being researched the influence of different H2O2 concentrations, treatment times, and temperatures on crude oil desulfurization when using a combination of alkaline and oxidative procedures. The results show that when the temperature and H2O2 volume ratio increase, the ultimate sulfur removal rate increases, but virtually maintains constant as treatment time increases. These significant findings will pave the way for widespread usage of combination aulkaline and oxidative desulfurization procedures.

Reducing Water Cut Using Polyacrylamide Polymers

Haidar Abdul Hameed; Hussein Ali; Najem Al-Rubaiey

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2021, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 16-27
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2021.0101.1004

Most of the oil fields inject water as a secondary recovery to maintain the pressure at the reservoir when reservoir natural energy is consumed and pressure is declined during the initial production stage. The disadvantage of using water as injection fluid is that the injected water will tend to finger by the oil because of low viscosity of water compared to oil and moves through the shortest path to the production wells under high water-oil mobility ratio condition, so large amounts of oil are left behind. In order to avoid the high mobility condition of injected water, polymers have been used. It is simply a chemicals dissolved in the injected water and because of the polymer high molecular weight, small amount within several hundred ppm will give significant increase in viscosity of injected water. As a result, it leads to better mobility ratio, reduces fingering effect and increases sweep efficiency. The scope of the current work is to study the effect of polymer injection in porous media on water cut and oil recovery and compare the results with that of water flooding. This study has been done using artificial core with a permeability of 1.82 Darcy and porosity ranging from 32.7 % to 33.7%. Three types of polymers with different molecular weight have been used. Results from artificial core flood experiments show that polymers reduce water cut and improve oil recovery.

The Impact of Completion Technology on Flow Dynamics and Pressure Behaviors of Horizontal Wells

Fadhil Kadhim; Salam Al Rbeawi

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2021, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2021.0101.1007

Horizontal wells with multiple completion parts have become a common completion technique in the oil and gas industry. Sand and asphalt production problems, damaged zones and water cresting or gas coning are the main reasons for using this technique to sustain or improve oil and gas recovery. However, using such completion technique introduces negative effects on pressure behavior of horizontal wells. This paper introduces new mathematical models for horizontal well containing several closed completed sections acting in finite and infinite reservoirs. These models can be used to evaluate the impact of the completion techniques on both pressure behaviors and flow regimes either in the vicinity of wellbore or at the outer boundary of reservoirs. They can be used also to investigate the change in productivity index that would result due to the usage of certain type of completion technique. In this research, the completed sections (cemented or isolated parts) and the places where packers are installed are considered as no-flow sections. These sections are expected to increase pressure drop required for flowing reservoir fluid toward wellbore. They are also expected to change flow regimes mainly in the vicinity of wellbore. Several models have been developed and solved in this study for different completion techniques, wellbore conditions and reservoir configuration. It has been found that the great impact of completion techniques is observed on flow regimes that commonly develop in the drainage area close to wellbore.This impact shows similar trends to the skin factor. Several new flow regimes have been observed

Looking into the Reservoir: Performance Evaluation of Fractured Long Horizontal Wells Using of Borehole Imaging Logs

Jihad Al-Joumaa; Ali H Al-Jumah; Houda Rumhi

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 20-30
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1012

Field G is a highly fractured and faulty field, this paper is seeking about the necessity to keep running Image logs in new oil wells and how the interpretation of the results would led the team to completing wells optimally and to design our well completion properly to prevent high initial water cut. Learnings are summarized from 40+ image logs ran in this field over the last few years. A cross field G seismic interpretation confirmed on lapping reservoirs and 3 major fault trends with different transmissibility. Also, sseismic and sub seismic Faults and fractures are confirmed from BHI with a NE-SW strike of field G and can be possibly related to production behavior of some wells.

In 2015, field G Water Encroachment Study was conducted to identify the cause of high initial water cut of producers. It proposed that detecting fractures early via under-balanced drilling, Borehole Imaging Tools (BHI) and sealing the conduits with production packers would help reduce initial water-cuts [2].
BHI tools are open hole tools that measure either electrical conductivity of the borehole wall or the sonic travel time and amplitude. Micro-conductivity or amplitude and travel time measurements generate an image that shows bedding, fractures and many other fine-scale features. Acoustic tools are preferred in Oil Based Mud (OBM) system and hence they have not been used in field G to the extent that it required a dedicated discussion.

Reservoir Fluids Model for a Middle Eastern Sandstone Reservoir

Doaa Saleh Mahdi; Emad Al-Khdheeawi; Duraid Al-Bayati; Christopher Lagat

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2021, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 45-58
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2021.0101.1005

Knowledge of the properties of reservoir fluids are very important in petroleum reservoir engineering (e.g. estimation of reserves in an oil reservoir, well test inflow performance calculations, and numerical reservoir simulation). The process of obtaining accurate values for these physical properties for hydrocarbon is most important in different oil industries. The main resource to get these properties is laboratory measurements but in many cases these measurements not available, thus other methods can be used to estimate these properties. This paper concerns with the prediction of the phase behavior and physical properties for a Middle Eastern sandstone reservoir by using multiphase equilibrium and properties determination program. Soave-Redlich-Kwong Equation of State & Peng-Robinson’s Equation of State and its modifications have been used to calculate the physical properties of reservoir fluid. To do so, each laboratory experiment was first simulated with the cubic Peng Robinson EOS without performing any regression and compared to the laboratory observations (PVT) as primarily results. Then splitting and lumping processes were used to tune or characterize the EOS so that it can reproduce the PVT experiments. The calculated PVT properties from these two steps are compared with the measured PVT data and the results show that the splitting and lumping processes given a good accuracy in predicting the PVT properties of the sandstone reservoir.

Evaluation of Cementation Job Using Cement Bond Log

Fadhil Kadhim; Mojtaba Mohammed Sameer; Emad Al-Khdheeawi; Abbas Radhi Abbas

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 65-82
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1017

Well cementing is an important process during oil and gas well drilling due role in supporting the well casing and preventing formation collapsing. Generally, there are two types of cementing process that are primary cementing and remedial cementing. The type of cement uses in oil and gas well is Portland cement mixed with improvements additives to enhance its characteristics. Various types of cements are used depends on different factors of the cemented region. This cementing process is evaluated using various methods such as ( CBL , Image, VDL, RBT , UST , RIB , URS logs ). Each one of them have its features, specifications and applications. In this paper, we evaluated the cement process for an Iraqi oil well by using CBL, Image and VDL logsy divided to two by selecting two different sections of the well; section A (depth 1780 m to 1800 m) , and section B (depth 1800 m to 1825 m). Our results show that in section A the cementing process is failed because there is no cement behind the casing (a free pipe case is available with fast formation), while section B show a good cementing process.

Evaluation of Petrophysical Properties Interpretations from Log Interpretation for Tertiary Reservoir /Ajeel Field

Rihab Abbass Deabl; Ahmad A. Ramadhan; Abdulalli A. Al-Dabaj

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2021, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 28-44
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2021.0101.1009

Tertiary Formation is divided into three main reservoir units. They are designated from top to bottom designated as Jeribe, Dhiban, and Euphrates. Jeribe unit is the main producing layer in the Tertiary Formation. Formation evaluation has been carried out for the Tertiary Formation of the Ajeel Field by analyzing various log and core data giving a full description of the properties in this Formation. Didger software package 3 was used to digitize the available log data, with the log interpretation by Interactive Petrophysics (IP V3.5) software which was used to correct the environmental parameters and produce the results of CPI. The logs studied were (caliper, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, gamma ray, sonic porosity, neutron porosity and bulk density). Pickett method was used to determine of the Archie's parameters (the tortuosity factor (a), cementation exponent (m) and the saturation exponent (n)). Total porosity was also calculated using neutron-density porosity logs. The effective porosity was obtained from the total one after extracting the shale percentages from the formation. classical method were used to predicate permeability with the core permeability shows the method correlations. These correlations were used to estimate permeability in uncored wells. According to these work, Tertiary Formation was divided into seven zones (Jeribe in to J1, J2, J3 and Dhiban in to D1, D2 and Euphrates in to E1, E2).

Reservoir Fluids Model for a Middle Eastern Sandstone Reservoir

Doaa Saleh Mahdi; Emad Al-Khdheeawi; Duraid Al-Bayati; Christopher Lagat

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2021, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 45-58
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2021.0101.1005

Knowledge of the properties of reservoir fluids are very important in petroleum reservoir engineering (e.g. estimation of reserves in an oil reservoir, well test inflow performance calculations, and numerical reservoir simulation). The process of obtaining accurate values for these physical properties for hydrocarbon is most important in different oil industries. The main resource to get these properties is laboratory measurements but in many cases these measurements not available, thus other methods can be used to estimate these properties. This paper concerns with the prediction of the phase behavior and physical properties for a Middle Eastern sandstone reservoir by using multiphase equilibrium and properties determination program. Soave-Redlich-Kwong Equation of State & Peng-Robinson’s Equation of State and its modifications have been used to calculate the physical properties of reservoir fluid. To do so, each laboratory experiment was first simulated with the cubic Peng Robinson EOS without performing any regression and compared to the laboratory observations (PVT) as primarily results. Then splitting and lumping processes were used to tune or characterize the EOS so that it can reproduce the PVT experiments. The calculated PVT properties from these two steps are compared with the measured PVT data and the results show that the splitting and lumping processes given a good accuracy in predicting the PVT properties of the sandstone reservoir.

Reducing Water Cut Using Polyacrylamide Polymers

Haidar Abdul Hameed; Hussein Ali; Najem Al-Rubaiey

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2021, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 16-27
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2021.0101.1004

Most of the oil fields inject water as a secondary recovery to maintain the pressure at the reservoir when reservoir natural energy is consumed and pressure is declined during the initial production stage. The disadvantage of using water as injection fluid is that the injected water will tend to finger by the oil because of low viscosity of water compared to oil and moves through the shortest path to the production wells under high water-oil mobility ratio condition, so large amounts of oil are left behind. In order to avoid the high mobility condition of injected water, polymers have been used. It is simply a chemicals dissolved in the injected water and because of the polymer high molecular weight, small amount within several hundred ppm will give significant increase in viscosity of injected water. As a result, it leads to better mobility ratio, reduces fingering effect and increases sweep efficiency. The scope of the current work is to study the effect of polymer injection in porous media on water cut and oil recovery and compare the results with that of water flooding. This study has been done using artificial core with a permeability of 1.82 Darcy and porosity ranging from 32.7 % to 33.7%. Three types of polymers with different molecular weight have been used. Results from artificial core flood experiments show that polymers reduce water cut and improve oil recovery.

A trends in Ozone Treatment of Wastewater: a Review

Najem Abdulkadhim Al-Rubaiey

Iraqi Journal of Oil and Gas Research (IJOGR), 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 55-64
DOI: 10.55699/ijogr.2022.0201.1016

In recent years, great efforts have been done by the scientific community to develop many green chemical processes to treat water and wastewater effluent. Taking into consideration these new approaches, a new environmentally friendly techniques are giving special attention such as ozonization. Molecular ozone, or tri-oxygen, can be considered as an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula of O3. Ozone is a pale blue gas having pungent smell and far less stable molecule than the molecular O2, decaying in the lower atmosphere to free O2 gas. Ozone is an efficient gas for killing bacteria and eliminating endotoxins and biofilm, with effectiveness being dependent on concentration and operating time. In addition, because the ozone is a strong oxidant, suitably compatible materials ought to be adopted. Moreover, the manufacture of ozone should always be supervised and its level checked occasionally in the surrounding environment to keep a pollution air standard of less than 0.1 ppm. In this paper, essentials and practical features dealing with ozonization system and its utilization are presented and discussed.

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